Advancements in Science and Technology: Exploring RFID and Human Cloning as Pioneering Developments of the 21st Century

Written By : ANUSKA SAHA

The development or evolution of science is like a blessing for the world. With the help of science, human beings are able to know about the world and especially about the things that are in themselves. Along with science, there is also the development of technology. With the help of both of these things, there are revolutions in various fields such as agriculture, information technology, education, medicine, and a lot more. Science and technology are two interrelated topics. Science is the fundamental study of the natural and physical world with the help of experiments, and technology is a skill or ability that helps to develop new products. In other words, it can be said that scientists developed technology with the help of their knowledge, and then technology was used to develop science.

In this 21st century, where there is rapid technological advancement, a very smart technology was introduced in today's world: human identification chips. This is a small chip that was planted in the human body to monitor their activity and collect their information. For instance, a person's name, birthday, and DNA data are all collected on those chips. The other name of the human identification chips is RFID, which means radio frequency tags. These chips are easily scanned from many feet away, so we can easily detect a person in a crowded place or even in a disaster area. The size of the cheap is roughly the size of a grain, and it is placed under the skin of a human being. The first person who inserted these chips in his arm was Kevin Warwick, who is the professor of cybernetics at Reading University, UK. In the early 2000s, Applied Digital Solutions in Florida started their experiment by inserting Verichips, which are presently referred to as positive ID. This modern technology took a long jump, and in 2004, it received FDA approval.

Fig 1: RFID Chip

When a new technology was launched, there were pros and cons. Thus, this RFID also had both pros and cons. These RFID chips can be used in the wallet, so people can easily find their wallet and have no fear of losing it. Secondly, people need different identification cards at different places, but with the help of this chip, people will be identified without any documents. Thirdly, these chips load everyone's medical history. These chips have a track record on that history, such as their allergies, passed diseases, etc. With this pro, there were also some cons, such as the fact that this cheap device is inserted under human skin, which can harm humans and create diseases such as tissue reactions, infections, etc. This also leads to cancer, and a 2007 research study also proves that. On the other hand, this chip can snatch or interfere with our independence or individuality. These chips are the new technological innovation, so it is very obvious that they are a prime target for hackers. This cheap carries a lot of information about people, so people's personal information may be at risk.

Fig 2 : RFID Chips under Human Skin

After all this observation, it can be said that mass use of RFID in humans must be a debatable issue, as it mainly creates help problems. This chip's use in animal product tracking or passport control may be acceptable, but injecting it into the human body must be a debatable topic.

In the 21st century, there was another problem that takes the lame light nowadays: the human cloning process. To get into the discussion, we first need to know what cloning is. Cloning basically has scientific significance. It is a process by which a genetically identical copy of an organism is created. Bacteria, warms, sea stars, and even plants are some organisms that are produced through cloning. So there will be no difference between parents and offspring through this process.

The first cloning leap occurred in 1996, with the somatic cell nuclear transfer, and Dolly, the sheep, was the first mammal cloned. After 277 attempts, the experiment was successful. The doctor first took an adult nucleus and injected it into an egg cell, which was enucleated, and implanted the cell into a surrogate mother. Through this experiment, cloning came into the public limelight. In the year 1997, primates, who were similar to humans, were cloned.
In the case of human cloning, humans cannot clone reproductively, but there are two types of techniques that are used for human cloning. First is the somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this transfer, there is an egg cell whose eggs are removed, called an enucleated cell. A donor cell is inserted in the enucleated egg. This egg then forms a blustocyst, which is implanted in a surrogate mother. Scientists use this reproductive learning process often. There was a second process, which is also used by scientists, called embryo splitting.

Fig 3: Human Cloning

Technology might someday help create a virtual clone such as Elon Musk's neural ink. But it is not yet possible to make a successful human body clone. As discussed earlier, technology always has two sides: negative and positive. Talking about the positive effects, the main advantage of human cloning is the ability to conduct organ transfers. It is done by embryo cloning. When a person suffers from organ failure, with the help of this cloning, an organ is generated that matches the original organ and gives the patient a new life. On the other hand, genetic diseases such as hemophilia and cystic fibrosis can be cured by human cloning. So the person can get rid of the diseases and enjoy a new life.

Fig 4: Human Cloning Process

Lastly, but most importantly, cloning helps those people who are unable to give birth to babies; they might be couples or people of the same sex. This not only allows the couple to have children but also modifies the child by adapting the traits of both parents. Along with the advantages, there are also disadvantages. Human cloning demolishes genetic diversity. This diversity makes a child more sensitive to diseases such as genetic disorders, malfunctions, etc., and it can also affect the human life span. If cloning is done on a person who is suffering from a genetic issue, it can lead to the complete demise of a species. The matter of concern is immature ageing. In the human body, there is a matter called a telomere, which protects DNA. These telomeres always become shorter and shorter when the cell divides. Eventually, after a certain point in time, these stop regenerating. So, if adult cells are frequently used in cloning, then it is a result of ageing.

Thus, it can be said that as every technology has both positive and negative effects, cloning has both positive and negative effects. Scientists believe that one day human cloning will be successful. They also believe that it either became very common among people in the world or would remain just a scientific discovery.
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